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Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards

by John R. Vig

Army Research Laboratory
Electronics and Power Sources Directorate
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5601, U.S.A.

SLCET-TR-92-1 (Rev. 1)
October 1992

  1. Introduction
  2. Crystal Oscillators
    1. Generalized Crystal Oscillator
      1. Oscillator Basics
      2. Crystal Unit Equivalent Circuit
      3. Stability versus Tunability
      4. Quartz and the Quartz Crystal Unit
    2. Oscillator Categories
    3. Oscillator Circuit Types
  3. Oscillator Instabilities
    1. Accuracy, Stability and Precision
    2. Aging
    3. Noise in Frequency Standards
      1. The Effects of Noise
      2. Noise in Crystal Oscillators
    4. Frequency versus Temperature Stability
      1. Static Frequency versus Temperature Stability
      2. Dynamic Frequency versus Temperature Effects
      3. Thermal Hysteresis and Retrace
    5. Warmup
    6. Acceleration Effects
    7. Magnetic-Field Effects
    8. Radiation Effects
    9. Other Effects on Stability
    10. Interactions Among the influences on Stability
  4. Oscillator Comparison and Selection
  5. Specifications, Standards, Terms, and Definitions
  6. For Further Reading
  7. References
  8. Index of Figure