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**Introduction to Quartz
Frequency Standards**

by John R. Vig

Army Research Laboratory

Electronics and Power Sources
Directorate

Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5601,
U.S.A.

SLCET-TR-92-1 (Rev. 1)

October 1992

- Introduction
- Crystal Oscillators
- Generalized Crystal Oscillator
- Oscillator Basics
- Crystal Unit Equivalent Circuit
- Stability versus Tunability
- Quartz and the Quartz Crystal Unit
- Oscillator Categories
- Oscillator Circuit Types
- Oscillator Instabilities
- Accuracy, Stability and Precision
- Aging
- Noise in Frequency Standards
- Frequency versus Temperature Stability
- Static Frequency versus Temperature Stability
- Dynamic Frequency versus Temperature Effects
- Thermal Hysteresis and Retrace
- Warmup
- Acceleration Effects
- Magnetic-Field Effects
- Radiation Effects
- Other Effects on Stability
- Interactions Among the influences on Stability
- Oscillator Comparison and Selection
- Specifications, Standards, Terms, and Definitions
- For Further Reading
- References
- Index of Figure