Oscilent Corporation - Technical References
Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards

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Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards - References

  1. Smith, W. L., Precision Oscillators. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 2 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 45-98, 1985.
  2. Frerking, M. E., Crystal Oscillator Design and Temperature Compensation, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1978.
  3. Bottom, V. E., Introduction to Quartz Crystal Unit Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982.
  4. Gerber, E. A. and Ballato, A. (eds.), Precision Frequency Control, Academic Press, New York, 1985.
  5. Parzen, B., Design of Crystal and Other Harmonic Oscillators, Wiley, New York, 1983. Chapter 3 of this book, Piezoelectric Resonators, by A. Ballato, is an oscillator-application oriented treatment of the subject.
  6. Hafner, E., Resonator and Device Measurements. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 2 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, pp. 1-44, 1985.
  7. Benjaminson, A., Computer-Aided Design of Crystal Oscillators, U. S. Army Laboratory Command R&D Technical Report DELET-TR-84-0386-F, August 1985, ADB096820; Advanced Crystal Oscillator Design, U. S. Army Laboratory Command R&D Technical Report SLCET-TR-85-0445-F, January 1988, AD-B121288; Advanced Crystal Oscillator Design, U. S. Army Laboratory Command R&D Technical Report SLCET-TR88-0804-1, February 1989, AD-B134514, and Advanced Crystal Oscillator Design, U. S. Army Laboratory Command R&D Technical Report SLCET-TR-88-0804-F, December, 1991 , AD-B163808.
  8. Kusters, J. A., Resonator and Device Technology. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 1 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, pp. 161 -183, 1985.
  9. Meeker, T. R., Theory and Properties of Piezoelectric Resonators and Waves. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 1 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, pp. 47-119, 1985.
  10. Kusters, J. A., The SC-cut Crystal - An Overview, Proc. 1981 Ultrasonics Symp., pp. 402-409.
  11. R. L. Filler, The Amplitude-Frequency Effect in SC-cut Resonators, Proc. 39th Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 311-316, NTIS Accession No. AD-A217404, 1985.
  12. Vig, J. R., LeBus, J. W., and Filler, R. L., Chemically Polished Quartz, Proc. 31st Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 131 -143, NTIS Accession No. AD-A088221 , 1977.
  13. Frerking, M. E., Temperature Control and Compensation. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 2 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 99-111, 1985.
  14. Schodowski, S. S., et al., Microcomputer Compensated Crystal Oscillator for Low Power Clocks, Proc. 21st Ann. Precise Time & Dme Interval (PTTI) Applications & Planning Meeting, pp. 445-464, 1989. Available from the U. S. Naval Observatory, Time Services Department, 34th and Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392. Details of the MCXO are also described in a series of five papers in the Proc. 43rd Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, NTIS Accession No. AD-A235629, 1989.
  15. XIIIth General Conference of Weights and Measures, Geneva, Switzerland, October 1967.
  16. Intemational Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), Recommendation No. 686, Glossary. In: CCIR 17th Plenary Assembly, Vol. 7, Standard Frequencies and Time Signals (Study Group 7), CClR, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990. Copies available from International Telecommunications Union' General Secretariat - Sales Section, Place des Nations, CH1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
  17. Vig, J. R., and Meeker, T. R., The Aging of Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators, Filters, and Oscillators, Proc. 45th Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, IEEE Cat. No. 91 CH2965-2, pp. 77-101 , 1991.
  18. Rutman, J., and Walls, F. L., Characterization of Frequency Stability in Precision Frequency Sources, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 6, pp. 952-960, June 1991.
  19. IEEE Standard Definitions of Physical Quantities for Fundamental Frequency and Time Metrology, IEEE Std. 1139-1988. IEEE, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, U.S.A.
  20. Parker, T. E., Characteristics and Sources of Phase Noise in Stable Oscillators, Proc. 41st Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 99-110, NTIS Accession No. ADA216858, 1987.
  21. Ballato, A. and Lukaszek, T., Higher Order Temperature Coefficients of Frequency of Mass-Loaded Piezoelectric Crystal Plates, Proc. 29th Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 10-25, NTIS Accession No. AD-A017466, 1975.
  22. Ballato, A. and Vig, J. R., Static and Dynamic Frequency-Temperature Behavior of Singly and Doubly Rotated, Oven-Controlled Quartz Resonators, Proc. 32nd Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 180-188, NTIS Accession No. AD-A955718, 1978.
  23. Ballato, A. and Tilton, R., Electronic Activity Dip Measurement, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. IM-27, pp. 59-65, 1978.
  24. Ballato, A., Frequency-Temperature-Load Capacitance Behavior of Resonators for TCXO Applications, IEEE Trans. Sonics and Ultrasonics, SU-25, pp. 185-191, July 1978.
  25. Filler, R. L., Frequency-Temperature Considerations for Digital Temperature Compensation, Proc. 45th Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 398-404, IEEE Cat. No. 87CH2965-2, 1991.
  26. Filler, R. L., Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Hysteresis in Resonators and TCXOs, Proc. 42nd Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp. 380-388, NTIS Accession No. AD-A217275, 1988.
  27. Kusters, J. A., and Vig, J. R., Thermal Hysteresis in Quartz Resonators - A Review, Proc. 44th Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp. 165-175, IEEE Catalog No. 90CH2818-3, 1990.
  28. U.S. Department of Defense, Military Specification, Oscillators, Crystal, General Specification for, MIL-0-55310. The latest revision is available from Military Specifications and Standards, 700 Robbins Ave., Bldg. 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.
  29. Vig, J. R., et al., Acceleration, Vibration and Shock Effects - lEEE Standards Project P1193, Proc. 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, IEEE Cat. No. 92CH3083-3, 1992; also, Vig, J. R., et al., The Effects of Acceleration on Precision Frequency Sources (Proposed for IEEE Standards Project P1193), U.S. Army Laboratory Command Research and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-91-3, March 1991. Copies available from National Technical information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Sills Building, Springfield, VA 22161; NTIS Accession No. AD-A235470.
  30. Taylor, J., Effects of Crystal Reference Oscillator Phase Noise in a Vibratory Environment, Technical Memorandum 2799-1011 , Motorola, SOTAS Engineering Development Section, Radar Operations, August 8, 1980. The Stand-Off Target Acquisition System (SOTAS) was a helicopter-borne coherent radar system that was being developed for the U.S. Army; the program was canceled before completion. To meet the 90% probability of detection goal for 4 km/h targets while operating from a helicopter, the system required a reference oscillator acceleration sensitivity of 4 x 10-12 per g, which was about 100-fold beyond the state-of-the-art at the time.
  31. Filler, R. L., et al., Ceramic Flatpack Enclosed AT and SC-cut Resonators, Proc. 1980 IEEE Ultrasonic Symp., pp. 819-824, 1980.
  32. Brendel, R., et al., Infuence of Magnetic Field on Quartz Crystal Oscillators, Proc. 43rd Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp. 268-274, NTIS Accession No. AD-A235629, 1 989.
  33. King, J. C., and Koehler, D. R., Radiation Effects on Resonators. In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 2 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 147-159, 1985.
  34. Suter, J. J., et al., The Effects of ionizing and Particle Radiation on Precision Frequency Sources, Proc. 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, IEEE Cat. No. 92CH3083-3, 1992.
  35. King, J. C. and Sander, H. H., Rapid Annealing of Frequency Change in High Frequency Crystal Resonators Following Pulsed X-irradiation at Room Temperature, Proc. 27th Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp.117-119, NTIS Accession No. AD-771042, 1973.
  36. Paradysz, R. E. and Smith W. L., Crystal Controlled Oscillators for Radiation Environments, Proc. 27th Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp. 120-123, NTIS Accession No. AD-771042, 1973.
  37. Martin, J. J., Electrodiffusion (Sweeping) of ions in Quartz, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 228-296, May IEEE Catalog 88CH2588-2' 1988.
  38. Gualtieri, J. G., Sweeping Quartz Crystals, Proc. 1989 IEEE Ultrasonics Symp., pp. 381 -391 , 1989.
  39. Flanagan, T. M., Leadon, R. E., and Shannon, D. L., Evaluation of Mechanisms for Low-Dose Frequency Shifts in Crystal Oscillators, Proc. 40th Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, pp. 127-133, NTIS Accession No. AD-A235435, 1986.
  40. Walls, F. L., The influence of Pressure and Humidity on the Medium and Long Term Frequency Stability of Quartz Oscillators, Proc. 42nd Ann. Symp. on Frequency Control, pp. 279-283, NTIS Accession No. AD-A217725, 1988.
  41. Walls, F. L., Environmental Sensitivities of Quartz Crystal Oscillators, Proc. 22nd Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, pp. 465477, NTIS Accession No. AD-A239372, 1990.
  42. Filler, et al., Specification and Measurement of the Frequency Versus Temperature Characteristics of Crystal Oscillators, Proc. 43rd Ann. Symp. Frequency Control, p. 253-256, NTIS Accession No. AD-A235629, 1989.
  43. The graphs in Figures 34 and 35 were prepared in 1989 for a CCIR document by Richard Sydnor, Jet Propulsion Laboratories.
  44. Stein, S. R. and Vig, J. R., Communications Frequency Standards, In: The Froelich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, Vol. 3 (Froehlich, F. E. and Kent, A. eds.), Marcel Dekker, inc., New York, 1992, pp. 445-500. A reprint of this chapter is available under the title, "Frequency Standards for Communications," as U. S. Army Laboratory Command Technical Report SLCET-TR-91-2 (Rev. 1), October 1991, NTIS Accession No. AD-A243211 .
  45. Hellwig, H., Microwave Time and Frequency Standards, In: Precision Frequency Control, Vol. 2 (E. A. Gerber and A. Ballato, eds.), Academic Press, New York, 1985, pp. 113-176.
  46. Vig, J. R. and V. J. Rosati, The Rubidium-Crystal Oscillator Hybrid Development Program, Proceedings of the 16th Annual PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting, 1984, pp. 157-165.
  47. Riley, W. J. and Vaccaro, J. R., A Rubidium-Crystal Oscillator (RbXO), IEEE Trans on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. UFFC-34, pp. 612-618, 1987.
  48. The Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, and its predecessor, the Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, have been published since the tenth symposium in 1956. The latest volumes are available from the IEEE, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854. The earlier volumes are available from the National Technical information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Sills Building, Springfield, VA 22161, USA. Ordering information for all the Proceedings can be found in the back of the latest volumes (e.g., the Proceedings of the 45th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control 1991 is available from the IEEE, Cat. No. 91 CH2965-2, and the Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium is Cat. No. 92CH3083-3).
  49. U.S. Department of Defense, Military Standard, MlL-STD-188-115, Interoperability and Performance Standards for Communications Timing and Synchronization Subsystems. The latest revision is available from Military Specifications and Standards, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 191 1 1-5094.
  50. The Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are available from the U. S. Naval Observatory, Time Services Department, 34th and Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5100. The latest volumes are also available from the National Technical information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Sills Building, Springfield, VA 22161, USA.
  51. The Proceedings of the European Frequency and Time Forum are available from the Swiss Foundation for Research in Metrology (FSRM), Rue de l'Orangerie 8, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland.
  52. IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, UFFC-34, November 1987.
  53. IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, UFFC-35, May 1988.
  54. Kroupa, V. F. (ed.), Frequency Stability: Fundamentals and Measurement, IEEE Press, New York, 1983.
  55. Sullivan, D. B., et al. (eds.), Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, National institute of Standards and Technology Technical Note 1337, National institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303-3328.
  56. Proceedings of the IEEE, Special issue on Time and Frequency, Vol. 79, No. 7, July 1991.